Write a paper that responds to one of the three following prompts. The paper is to be a maximum of 5 double-spaced pages, and no shorter than 4 full pages. Use 12 point type, Times New Roman, normal margins. Word limit: 1400 words. Papers longer than that (in either pages or words) will not be accepted. Citations in footnotes will not count against the word limit. There is to be no prose, other than citations, in footnotes: no discussion of issues there. All sentences are to be 16 words or less. The sentences must remain sentencesâ€“grammatical sentences after you cut words. The point is to use this restriction to help you keep your writing clear and simple. If any sentence is longer than 16 words, points will be deducted from your grade. TAs have the option of refusing to accept a paper until all sentences meet the word limit. Work on your sentences. Maximize active, rather than passive, verbs. Maximize transitive, rather than intransitive, verbs. (Transitive verbs have a direct object, as in â€˜May hit the ballâ€™. Intransitive verbs lack a direct object, as in â€˜Mary is a hitterâ€™). Submit your paper through Turn-it-in. Submit both an electronic copy and a paper copy. Do not crib words from articles or books that you read. Use your own words. Cite your sources; quote them if necessary. Mostly use your own words. Explanations should be independent enough from your sources to show that you understand. Try to write like a scientist as far as possible. (1) Explain what perceptual anti-individualism is. Use the bookâ€™s index to find my explication, but use your own words. Explain how anti-individualism provides a framework for perceptual psychology and why it is plausible that perceptual psychology presupposes anti-individualism in the nature and contents of its transformation laws. Illustrate this latter point through one concrete example of explanation. You need not give an explanation in detail. It is enough to explain the main point of some transformation(s). You can use any of the four explanations in the bookâ€“Origins, pp. 347-366. (2) Describe the aspect of luminance constancy that involves distinguishing surface luminance from illumination. Luminance is a relatively constant property of the surface. Illumination is a varying property of the amount of light or shadow on the surface. See Origins, pp. 351-354. You need not go into great detail. It is enough to explain the main principle that enables the system to make the distinction. Describe transition from registration of stimulation to perception of a surface as a degree of luminance. Explain the preceding italicized notions. Explain how differences between shadows/illumination and reflectance are not distinguished in the registration of proximal stimulation. Explain why this distinguishing operation contributes to having a perceptual constancyâ€“see Origins 388. (3) Use examples to explain the difference between mere sensory registration and perceptual representation. One can always use representational talk to describe any system or organism. Why should we think that some systems represent while others do not? What is a perceptual constancy? Explain using examples. Perceptual constancies mark genuine perceptual representation, rather than mere sensory registration. Elaborate. Use both the book and the lectures to help frame your paper. Key terms, as always, can be found in the index.