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Prepare a spreadsheet with three columns: Date, High Temperature, and Low Temperature. List the past 60 days for which data is available. 2. Prepare a histogram for the data on high temperatures and comment on the shape of the distribution as observed from these graphs. 3. Calculate  and S. 4. What percentage of the high temperatures are within the interval  – S to  + S? 5. What percentage of the high temperatures are within the interval  – 2S to  + 2S? 6. How do these percentages compare to the corresponding percentages for a normal distribution (68.26% and 95.44%, respectively)? 7. Repeat Parts 2 to 6 for the minimum temperatures on your spreadsheet. 8. Would you conclude that the two distributions are normally distributed? Why or why not?

Material PROBABILITY Maximum and Minimum Temperatures Search the Internet for U.S. climate data. Choose the city in which you live. Click on the tab that reads “Daily” 1. Prepare a spreadsheet with three columns: Date, High Temperature, and Low Temperature. List the past 60 days for which data is available. 2. Prepare a histogram for the data on high temperatures and comment on the shape of the distribution as observed from these graphs. 3. Calculate  and S. 4. What percentage of the high temperatures are within the interval  – S to  + S? 5. What percentage of the high temperatures are within the interval  – 2S to  + 2S? 6. How do these percentages compare to the corresponding percentages for a normal distribution (68.26% and 95.44%, respectively)? 7. Repeat Parts 2 to 6 for the minimum temperatures on your spreadsheet. 8. Would you conclude that the two distributions are normally distributed? Why or why not?

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Describe the external factors that affect the international operations at UPS. Explain how these external factors cause UPS to adjust its operations. Discuss the inputs, processing, and outputs of UPS tracking system. Examine the technologies which are used by UPS. Illustrate how these technologies are related to the business model and business objectives of UPS.

UPS and the Utility of Information Systems   After reading chapter one, watch the  video: (Real Media Player can be downloaded for free at www.real.com) and read the additional write-up on page 16 of your text. Answer the questions listed below using APA format. Be sure to integrate vocabulary from the text to demonstrate your understanding of concepts. The paper should not exceed 2 double-spaced pages (excluding title page). United Parcel Service’s operations are driven by its information systems technology. Beginning as a local delivery service in 1907, UPS expanded on the West coast initially, reached New York in the 1930s, and went international in the 1970s. Today, UPS delivers over 14 million packages daily to 200 countries and territories. A $1.5 billion technology investment in the 1980s buoyed the growth of UPS. The investment enabled the development of the International Shipments Processing System (ISPS), which is the key to the company’s overseas operations. The technology infrastructure enables UPS to offer its customers services in addition to the basic shipment of packages. UPS drivers play an important role in the company’s services by capturing information at the endpoints of each delivery segment. Volume, cultural differences, and hardware readiness all impact the development and continued growth of UPS.  

  1. Describe the external factors that affect the international operations at UPS.
  2. Explain how these external factors cause UPS to adjust its operations.
  3. Discuss the inputs, processing, and outputs of UPS tracking system.
  4. Examine the technologies which are used by UPS. Illustrate how these technologies are related to the business model and business objectives of UPS.

Identify the problems that UPS’s information systems need to solve Carefully review the Grading Rubric for the criteria that will be used to evaluate your assignment.     Readings

  1. Read the following chapters in your text, Essentials of Management Information Systems:
    • Chapter 1: Business Information Systems in Your Career
    • Chapter 2: E-Business: How Businesses Use Information Systems

Multimedia

  1. Watch Pearson’s Video Case:  UPS International Distribution (you will have to select Video Case in the left navigation of the browser window that opens with this link). This will assist you in writing your paper this week.
Course Home – Course Materials

  Required Text

Laudon, K., Laudon, J. (2009). Essentials of management information systems (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. ISBN: 9780136025818


Required Websites

UPS Video UPS International Distribution       The Written Assignments must reflect college-level writing and thinking, and they will contribute 67% to the course grade.       Paper Grading Criteria A range: The paper is clear, engaging, original, and focused; ideas and content are richly developed with details and examples. Organization and form enhance the central idea and theme; ideas are presented coherently to move the reader through the text. The voice of the writer is compelling and conveys the writer’s meaning through effective sentence structure and precise word choices. The writer successfully moves the paper through academic constructs and experiential documentation to critical analysis. The paper demonstrates a clear balance of these three components. B range: The paper is reasonably clear, focused, and well supported; ideas are adequately developed through details and examples. Organization and form are appropriate, and ideas are generally presented coherently. The voice of the writer contributes to the writer’s meaning through appropriate and varied sentence structure and word choices. Surface features do not interfere with understanding or distract from meaning. The writer has clearly brought the reader through properly cited academic constructs and experiential documentation, but has not fully developed the area of critical analysis. C range: The paper has some focus and support; ideas and content may be developed with limited details and examples. The writing may be somewhat disorganized or too obviously structured. The voice of the writer is generally absent; basic sentence structure and limited vocabulary convey a simple message. Surface feature errors may reduce understanding and interfere with meaning. The content areas of academic constructs are limited and large generalizations are made. Critical analysis is all but absent from the paper. D range: The paper has little focus and development; few details and examples support ideas and content. There is little discernible shape and no direction. The writer’s tone is flat. Awkward sentence structure and inadequate vocabulary interfere with understanding. Limited control of surface features makes paper difficult to read. Critical analysis is absent, and segments of the paper are given to rambling descriptions of life experience without academic context.

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Identify how you learned what diversity means from other courses or experiences (you cannot use prior papers to fulfill this assignment). Analyze your definition and explain its significance in terms of understanding the world around you. Write a 1250-1500-word essay that demonstrates your understanding of the fundamental importance of diversity.

In this essay, you will write about diversity. The purpose of this essay is to demonstrate how you have met the diversity outcome through your past coursework or work experiences. The outcome states: Students will be able to identify and characterize their own cultural background and experiences in comparison to those of others and evaluate pathways to equitable solutions that recognize the strengths inherent in a diverse and multicultural understanding of world issues. Here are your instructions for this essay:

  1. Identify how you learned what diversity means from other courses or experiences (you cannot use prior papers to fulfill this assignment).
  2. Analyze your definition and explain its significance in terms of understanding the world around you.
  3. Write a 1250-1500-word essay that demonstrates your understanding of the fundamental importance of diversity.
  4. Be as specific as possible.
  5. Proofread your paper before submitting.
  6. Use scholarly resources.

Here is assistance for your writing:

  1. APA Citations Style Tip Sheet
  2. Smarthinking (writing tutors are available)
  3. Grammarly (to assist with your grammar electronically)
  4. Here are library tips.
  5. Click here to access the library databases to assist you
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.Research your chosen topic in the EC Library. You can easily get to the library through the left-hand purple toolbar. The Liberal Arts Research Guide for Undergraduate Capstones is a useful place to start. You can use web sources that are scholarly. If you are not sure, please ask your instructor. Do not use Wikipedia. 2.Select three to five scholarly research pieces about your topic. To learn more about how to tell if the research you found is scholarly, please view EC Library’s video: Scholarly vs. Popular: What’s the difference? 3.Using the article by Elder and Paul, Analytic Thinking, refer to pages 5 and 6. On pages 5 and 6 are examples of how to apply the “8 Elements of Reasoning.” 4.You cannot use “pollution” as a topic, since that is the Elder and Paul example. 5.Write your responses to the list that Elder and Paul provide in narrative form; bulleted lists will not be accepted

Global Business Communication.  Technology has made an enormous impact in the global business world by facilitating communication, logistics and marketing.   1.Research your chosen topic in the EC Library. You can easily get to the library through the left-hand purple toolbar. The Liberal Arts Research Guide for Undergraduate Capstones is a useful place to start. You can use web sources that are scholarly. If you are not sure, please ask your instructor. Do not use Wikipedia. 2.Select three to five scholarly research pieces about your topic. To learn more about how to tell if the research you found is scholarly, please view EC Library’s video: Scholarly vs. Popular: What’s the difference? 3.Using the article by Elder and Paul, Analytic Thinking, refer to pages 5 and 6. On pages 5 and 6 are examples of how to apply the “8 Elements of Reasoning.” 4.You cannot use “pollution” as a topic, since that is the Elder and Paul example. 5.Write your responses to the list that Elder and Paul provide in narrative form; bulleted lists will not be accepted. 6.Use your references to support your answers. This paper is to demonstrate your critical thinking skills. As such, you are to take what you have researched and analyze and synthesize what is written. You are to form educated responses to the Elder and Paul list, which means you need to include evidence from experts in your field. Some remaining guidelines: 7.Write 1250-1500 words 8.Double space 9.Include a title page 10.Refer to the SLA Writing Rubric for details on the grading expectations 11.Include a “References” page using APA 12.Do not include an “Abstract” 13.Use the APA style guide for your citations  

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Measure the physical flow of resources Compute the equivalent units of production Identify the product costs to be accounted for Compute the cost per equivalent unit: weighted average Assign product cost to batches of wor

REMEMEBER MY TEXT BOOK IS: Horngren, C. T., Datar, S. M., & Rajan, M. V. (2015). Cost accounting: A managerial emphasis (15th ed.). Boston: Pearson 1). Using this week’s lecture, discuss the concept of equivalent units and how that concept relates to management decision making. Be sure to include information in your discussion about the weighted-average method in comparison to the FIFO method of accounting for work residing in work-in-process units. WEEK LECTURE: Process costing deals with batches of like products.  For example, paint is produced in large quantities and you can’t tell one gallon of white paint from another gallon of white paint.  A barrel of oil would be another example.  The essence of this costing method is that costs are accumulated by process rather than by job.  Accounting is very definitive, so process costing becomes a little out of the comfort zone for many accountants because we don’t have anything that is exact.  At month end under job costing, we know how much in materials have been charged to a specific job.  However, under process costing we only know that a certain quantity of materials has been entered into the process. As a result, we have to estimate how far along we are in the process for direct materials and direct labor.  To do this we introduce the concept of equivalent units.  Equivalent units is just fancy terminology for how far along we are in the process. Since accountants like to think of completed units for costing purposes, we estimate, based on where we are in the process, how many equivalent units of completed materials we would have if we combined all the partially completed units into a smaller number of completed units.  For example, we might estimate that 200 units ½ complete would be equivalent to 100 fully completed units.  See, that wasn’t so bad. Here is a short video on the basics: Process Costing Part 1 – Managerial Accounting Journal entries under process costing are also a little different than under job order costing.  Materials are issued to a process, rather than a job, so materials requisitioned would be debited to WIP (some department) and credited to Materials Inventory.  There are a series of five steps we use for this type of costing:

  1. Measure the physical flow of resources
  2. Compute the equivalent units of production
  3. Identify the product costs to be accounted for
  4. Compute the cost per equivalent unit: weighted average
  5. Assign product cost to batches of wor

Here’s a problem that will demonstrate this process:  Process Costing Part 2 – Managerial Accounting One other concept that bears some additional discussion is called an Economic Order Quantity (EOQ).  The idea behind the EOQ is that there is some specific quantity of materials that should be ordered each time an order is placed in order to minimize inventory holding costs and inventory ordering costs. This concept dovetails nicely with our ABC discussion in an earlier week actually. The formula for the EOQ is: EOQ = the square root of (2DS/H) where D=annual quantity demanded, S=flat fixed cost per order and H is the annual holding cost. There are several assumptions that underlie this formula.  First, the order cost is constant per order.  Next, demand is known and is evenly distributed throughout the period.   Third, the lead time for the order is fixed, and, fi   2). Using this week’s lecture, answer the following:

  • What is an (EOQ)?
  • How is EQQ calculated and what are the underlying assumptions associated with the use of this tool?
  • From a management perspective, why might the EOQ conflict with a manager’s performance evaluation goals?

  3). Capital budgeting is an integral part of the strategic planning and budgeting process of most firms.  Explain and provide a numerical example of the use of the internal rate-of-return method and the Net Present Value (NPV) method of analyzing capital budget projects.  Which one is a better indicator for management decision-making related to capital acquisition decisions?  Why?   4). Using this week’s lecture, explain what a transfer price is, what the criteria should be for evaluating potential transfer price, and provide an example of transfer pricing in action assuming: a) excess capacity and b) no excess capacity. Review the Forbes article: Transfer Pricing as Tax Avoidance and explain how transfer pricing might be used for tax avoidance. WEEKS LECTURE: Coming down the home stretch this week we take a look at combining all these activities and concepts into a management tool we call a budget, or plan.  It has been said that if we don’t know where we are going, then it doesn’t really matter how we get there.  A budget not only tells us where we are heading (in financial terms) but also gives us measures of performance along the way to help managers stay on track.  Think about this in terms of your own personal situation.  If you did not know how much money you were going to make this month, how would you know what to buy and what not to buy, right?  So this budget becomes a tool to manage performance. Since a budget causes us to think about our operations in broad terms, we can call this strategic management.  In the perfect world a company establishes its long-term strategic objectives in terms of financial profitability and then budgets are prepared that indicate how each manager/department will perform in order to help the company reach those goals.  So, we need a process that will lead us to our end result, which is a master budget.  To get to this, we start with a sales forecast of units expected to be sold.  Once we have this figured out, then we can figure out the revenue those sales will generate.  To meet that sales demand, we figure out how much needs to be produced, then we break this down into the main components, direct materials, direct labor and manufacturing overhead. Once we have these figures, then we can put dollar values to them and create a budget for each.  A budget must also be prepared for administrative overhead and for capital spending (machinery and so on), and from this, we create a cash flow budget (inflows and outflows). The end result of this activity will be a budgeted (forecasted) income statement, balance sheet, and statement of cash flows.  This short video will summarize this process:  Responsibility Accounting: Master Budget – Managerial Accounting Video Our final topic is transfer pricing.  Let’s suppose we have a sister plant that makes a part for a widget that we need to produce our widgets. Presently we are purchasing that part from an outside supplier.  If we were to switch and buy that part internally from our sister plant, what price should be charged to us that would make us willing to purchase the part internally and would also make our sister plant happy to do business with us?  That price is the subject of much debate among plant managers, but the “fair” price is actually dependent on the level of capacity the producing plant has available.  In general terms, the transfer price should be the sum of the outlay costs (usually variable costs to produce) plus the opportunity cost of the resource at the transfer point.  Take a look at a quick example: Pricing – 6: Transfer Pricing  

   

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1). Discuss the four possible capacity levels a firm must evaluate when deciding how to set budgeted fixed manufacturing cost rates, including the pros and cons of selecting each capacity level. Explain the potential impact this decision would have on firm profitability.

QUESTIONS: 1). Discuss the four possible capacity levels a firm must evaluate when deciding how to set budgeted fixed manufacturing cost rates, including the pros and cons of selecting each capacity level. Explain the potential impact this decision would have on firm profitability.   2). Using this week’s lecture, discuss the concept of relevant cost for decision making, incorporating both quantitative and qualitative data concepts into the relevancy discussion. Indicate if and how opportunity costs should be considered in this decision-making process. WEEK’S LECTURE When a manager needs to make a decision about something, anything really, the manager is primarily interested in the information that will change among the various alternatives. If the data does not change, then it is not relevant to the particular decision at hand.  This is called differential analysis.  As such, only information that actually may help change our decision is relevant information.  For example, If we paid $800,000 for some equipment one year ago, and some new equipment comes out that will run twice as fast with half the labor requirement, then the cost of the old equipment ($800,000 in this example) becomes irrelevant (because it is a sunk cost) to the decision of whether we should upgrade to the new equipment or not. The factors that are relevant are the cost of the new machine, the number of pieces of product the new machine will produce compared to the old machine (difference), the difference in labor cost between running the old machine and the new machine on a per unit basis, and any utility savings that may incur.  We would also consider any tax implications we may encounter and any disposal value related to the old machine. Watch the following video: Part 1 – Relevant Costs for Decision Making: Sunk and Differential Costs So where can we use this logic we are covering?  Well, full cost and special order pricing come to mind.  Under full cost pricing of a product we calculate the variable and fixed cost on a per unit basis and then apply this to the new product.   This sounds reasonable, right?  We do have to cover all costs in order to make a profit.  However, if the fixed costs are present whether or not we produce and sell this product, then the fixed costs become irrelevant to our decision.  Why?  Because, if we do not produce this product, then those fixed costs will be reallocated among the remaining products.  So, how is this useful to us?  Well, when a customer approaches us about a special price for a bulk order of our product this information will come in handy.  In theory, any price for our product that is over and above the product per unit variable cost should be considered assuming excess production capacity exists and the special pricing will not be known or utilized in markets in which we already have customers. Here is a short video that demonstrates this concept: Part 5 – Relevant Costs for Decision Making: Special Order   Another offshoot of this discussion would be a make or buy decision.  This type of decision also uses differential costs to determine if a product should be made internally or purchased from a supplier.  While the cost analysis is relatively straight forward, the item most frequently ignored in this type of analysis relates to qualitative rather than quantitative factors.  Qualitative concerns would be things like the firm’s ability to ensure a steady product supply and the quality of the product or part being purchased, among other things. Take a look at this short video relating to make or buy decisions, keeping in mind that there are some things you cannot put a dollar figure to (like piece of mind when you control your own destiny, for example): Decision Making & Relevant Information: Make-or-Buy, Part 1 – Accounting Video. This same sort of analysis also applies to a decision to keep a product line or drop it: Part 3 – Relevant Costs for Decision Making: Drop or Retain Now that we have relevant costs firmly fixed in our mind, we take up the topic of cost estimation. Why use an estimate, you say?  Well, for one, we may not know exactly which component we will ultimately use in a product if research is still being conducted, but we still may need a rough cost figure to work with to determine if the end cost of a potential product is anywhere in the ballpark with the market pricing of this product. Cost accountants and other managers conduct all sorts of “what if” type analysis when looking to the future, and there are usually unknowns that need some assumptions to be made to create an estimate to be used for the analysis. Certainly it is necessary to know how a cost behaves when conducting any sort of analysis.  Categorizing costs as fixed or variable is usually necessary.  Then a determination about what sort of estimate to use is required.  Estimates could be an engineering estimate, where time and motion studies are conducted, and a detailed analysis and consideration of components and their cost drivers. Another estimate that is sometimes used is the account analysis. With this approach, the accountant analyzes each account utilized in an existing activity and compares the type of costs (fixed or variable) and the impact each cost has on the overall cost of producing a fixed number of items.  The resulting cost formula is:  TC=FC + VX where TC is Total Cost, FC is Fixed Cost, V is variable cost and X is volume. While engineering estimates and account analysis have their place, each has some limitations that can require some additional work to validate the results.  A third method that overcomes many of the limitations of the other methods is Statistical Cost Estimation. Within some defined relevant range of activity this method, though based on historical information, can create a very practical way to estimate future costs.  To make this comparison more representative, variables can be adjusted for known changes, like an expected inflationary increase percentage for purchase price of materials, for example.   One statistical method often used is called the High/Low cost estimation.  Under this approach the variable cost per unit is derived utilizing the formula: (Cost at highest activity level – Cost at lowest activity level)/(Highest activity level – Lowest activity level).  Then we take the total cost at either activity level and subtract the variable cost to get the fixed cost.  Finally, we apply the figures to our cost formula previously postulated where TC=FC + VC. Here is a short video with an example: Cost Analysis Part 2 – The High Low Method: Management Accounting Another statistical method used is called regression analysis.  With spreadsheets and statistical calculators today, this method becomes much less tedious than in periods past.  This is a short video you might find useful for a better understanding of this concept:  Cost Analysis Part 4 – Least Squares Regression Method in Excel: Management Accounting.   3). Explain the value of a customer-profitability analysis in making management decisions about future operations. Are there times when a company would be better off without a particular customer?  If so, explain the scenario and indicate how you might approach a customer that fits that category to address the issue.   4). Referencing this week’s lecture, explain in your own words and give a numerical example of the allocation of multiple support departments to a production department utilizing the direct, step down, and reciprocal methods.  In addition, explain what impact the allocation method might have on management decision making.   WEEK’S LECTURE: We have seen how various costing issues are handled in our previous work.  Now it is time to see how the results are applied and used by management to make decisions about running the business.  Previously we studied activity based costing.  Now we take that information and apply it to what we call activity based management. Now that we have identified the costs and what drives them, we can take that information and use it to try and reduce costs to improve the firm’s profitability.  This requires changing activities, since that is what drives costs. So the focus has shifted from studying the costs themselves to studying the activities that drive the costs, which intuitively makes a lot of sense, don’t you think?  If a firm has extra steps involved in the manufacturing process, or in the design process of a product, that costs money.  If we eliminate those extra steps, the costs are also typically eliminated. We call this eliminating non-value added costs. Examples of non-value added processes, in general terms, are those that involve storing, moving, waiting, or other such activities in the production process. In a retail environment, it would be cheaper for a bank if customers did their banking online or via a cash machine, right?  That would eliminate unnecessary labor.  See where we are going with this?  Take a few minutes and check out this video that deals with activity based management to get a better handle on what we are talking about. Capacity is a separate issue, but related to activity based management because capacity is activity (volume) based.  Does excess capacity have a cost?  Sure it does…lost revenue is an opportunity cost, right? So a manager who is faced with excess capacity needs to find a way to utilize this capacity productively to generate a return on the investment.  It seems to make sense when we look at lost revenue.  In addition, quality has a cost component as well, so the cost of quality is directly related to the activity put into insuring a quality product is being produced. Take a look at this 2 minute summary: Quality Cost So, now that we are in the cost mode, let’s look at service department cost allocations.  What are service departments?  Well, they are departments that serve others, like accounting, human resource, data processing, or maintenance, for example.   Why must we allocate them?  Because they would not exist unless others need their services.  No company can function long without some HR individuals, right (could be internal or could be outsourced, but there is cost either way)?   User departments would be a department like a production department, or, in many cases, another service department (the accounting department also uses HR services).  There are multiple methods used for this allocation, but the primary ones are the direct method, the step method, and the reciprocal method.  While each works a little differently, the basic concepts are similar.   MY BOOK THAT I AM USING IS: Horngren, C. T., Datar, S. M., & Rajan, M. V. (2015). Cost accounting: A managerial emphasis (15th ed.). Boston: Pearson  

 

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) Process Narration: Particularly if your topic is of the how-to variety, this strategy will come in very handy. Even if your topic is not how-to, a clear explanation of how something is done may be helpful. In the “Love” essay, Toufexis uses process narration to explain how romantic love may have been part of the evolutionary process (see paragraphs 3 through 6). For more on this concept, refer to Chapter 14. 4.) Comparison and Contrast: Another way to explain something is to discuss the ways in which it is similar to and different from a concept that your audience is already familiar with. Throughout the “Love” essay, Toufexis compares and contrasts our traditional assumptions about love with the scientific view of love. For more on this concept, refer to Chapter 18.

Major Paper #4–Explaining a Concept Research Paper In the Explaining a Concept Paper, you will simply want to explain a concept of your choice (any topic of your choice), using research to support your explanations/definitions.  This paper should be at least 4-6 pages long, it should include at least two sources, and it should accomplish the following: *Inform your particular audience about a specific subject. *Present information confidently and efficiently. *Use established information for support, as well as personal “evidence” (if applicable) such as short anecdotes and examples from your own experience, or the experience of others. *Maintain an informative tone (not an argumentative tone, as this is not an argumentative or persuasive paper).   *** IMPORTANT NOTE: Papers on the following topics will not be accepted: * abortion * capital punishment * euthanasia These topics are far too controversial for the Explaining a Concept Research Paper, which should be informative (not persuasive) in its purpose.  Also, I’ve already read more papers on these topics than anyone should in an entire lifetime, so I won’t read anymore. I encourage you to be more creative in selecting your topic.       There are several different ways that one can explain a concept.  While you do not have to use all five of these strategies (some may be more helpful to your paper than others, depending on your topic), the following options may be useful for you to consider: 1.)  Defining Directly:  This is the most obvious strategy—using a direct, dictionary-type definition to explain what something is or does.  For instance, in the “Love” essay, Toufexis defines terms such as “attraction junkies” and “endorphins” directly (see paragraphs 12 and 13).  For more on this concept, refer to Chapter 16. 2.)  Classification:  Another way to explain something is to break information into groups, and discuss each of the groups one by one.  This is called classification.  In the “Love” essay, Toufexis divides hormonal chemicals into two groups:  those associated with falling in love and those associated with lasting relationships (see paragraphs 9 through 14).  For more on this concept, refer to Chapter 17. 3.)  Process Narration:  Particularly if your topic is of the how-to variety, this strategy will come in very handy.  Even if your topic is not how-to, a clear explanation of how something is done may be helpful.  In the “Love” essay, Toufexis uses process narration to explain how romantic love may have been part of the evolutionary process (see paragraphs 3 through 6).  For more on this concept, refer to Chapter 14. 4.)  Comparison and Contrast:  Another way to explain something is to discuss the ways in which it is similar to and different from a concept that your audience is already familiar with.  Throughout the “Love” essay, Toufexis compares and contrasts our traditional assumptions about love with the scientific view of love.  For more on this concept, refer to Chapter 18. 5.)  Cause and Effect.  A final strategy to consider is cause and effect.  What are the causes of your concept?  What are the effects of your concept?  Again, this tool may be more useful for some topics than others, but it is an option you should consider.  In the “Love” essay, Toufexis explains what may have caused romantic love to develop in human evolution, as well as the benefits—or effects—of this development. As you continue working on your draft and reviewing the pages in the “Guide to Writing” section of Chapter 4, please keep these options and examples in mind, as they may help you determine which strategies will work best in explaining your concept.         Structure In general, this paper should follow the basic research paper format:  Introduction, Body, Conclusion.  However, here’s a more specific outline: 1.)  List your audience at the top of your paper, before your title.  Who are your intended readers?  You can name a specific group of people (for instance, “New parents”) or you can name a publication that you think your paper would be appropriate for (for instance, Time Magazine or Outdoor Life). 2.)  Introduction.  This is the place where you need to engage the reader.  In journalism, this is referred to as the “hook.”  How can you hook your readers?  How can you grab their interests so that they want to keep reading? There are several ways to hook the reader.  You can start with a question, you can alter your tone (see the first paragraph of “Love”), you can use a quote (also see the beginning of “Love”), or you can tell a story.  Your introduction and hook may take only one paragraph, or it may take several, as the example essays demonstrated. 3.)  State your thesis.  This is the place where you come right out and tell the reader what you are going to be offering them.  (See paragraph 2 in “Love.”) 4.)  Orient your readers to your concept.  In other words, describe or define your concepts, so that your readers can understand what you’re talking about specifically. 5.)  Provide information about your concept.  Use strategies such as comparison/contrast, process narration, etc., and use examples as appropriate.  (See the body portions of the example essay “Love.”) 6.)  Conclusion.  This is where you want to wrap things up for the reader.  You may even make some reference back to the beginning of the paper, or restate your points.  (See the last paragraphs of “Love.”)   MLA Documentation: A Simplified Approach MLA Documentation is simply a standardized method of citing your sources.  In general, when you use source material, you’ll want to do several things. Within the text of your paper . . . 1.)  When you are using a source for the first time, introduce your source so that we can understand his or her credibility.  According to Joe Smith, a computer programmer at VacuTech, “Programming is difficult” (Smith 2). 2.)  When you quote the same source later in the paper (after he/she has been introduced), use a standard attribute tag.  Smith went on to say that “DOS is especially difficult for many beginning users” (Smith 3). 3.)  In addition to these informal methods of citation, you will need to use parenthetical citations whenever you are quoting a source directly and whenever you are using a source’s ideas, even if you are putting them in your own words.  Smith explained that there are three keys to good programming:  be patient, be practical, be persistent (Smith 2). Additional Notes/Questions about In-Text Citations *But what if the author of the article is not the person that I am quoting?  What if I’m quoting someone who the author quoted in her article? If the person you are quoting is not the author, just do the same as in number 1 above, but when you get to the parenthetical citation use the author’s name instead of the name of the person you are quoting.  For instance, if Lou Brown had written the article above, and merely quoted Joe Smith, you would do this: According to Joe Smith, a computer programmer at VacuTech, “Programming is difficult” (Brown 2). *But what if the article has no author? If the article has no author, just do the same as above, but use a keyword from the article title in the parenthetical citation.  For instance, if the article we quoted above had no author, but we knew the title was “Programming for Beginners,” we would cite it like this: According to Joe Smith, a computer programmer at VacuTech, “Programming is difficult” (“Beginners” 2). At the end of your paper . . . At the end of your paper, you’ll need to include a Works Cited page, which will offer an extended reference for each of the sources you used in your paper.  Use the MLA guide in the assigned reading for this week to determine how to cite each of your individual sources. PLEASE NOTE:  Though the sample essay “Love: The Right Chemistry” offers a great deal in terms of teaching us about strategy and structure, it does not include formal intext MLA citations or a final Works Cited page.  These are requirements for most academic research papers, including the Explaining a Concept Research Paper for this class.  For a good example of a paper that uses the MLA System of Documentation correctly, please be sure to carefully review the sample student essay in your textbook entitled “Educating Kids at Home,” which is part of our assigned reading for this week.  This sample essay also includes very helpful annotated notes, identifying and explaining the ways the author has incorporated her citations. For more information on MLA documentation on the web, go to: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01/

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Write a 1-2 page resume, designed to compete for the position you researched and chose in Part 1 of this assignment. You can get creative with it! Your finished product (research and resume) should be a total of 2-3 pages in length.

Job Search

A well-developed resume remains an essential element of successfully obtaining a job. This is a multi-part assignment. Part 1: Conduct resarch and write a 1 “full” page paper. Instructions include:

  • Online Job Search – Conduct an online job search and identify a position you might be interested in applying for.
  • In your paper, discuss the details of your online search and how you went about finding the position (Where, what, how, etc).
  • Also, describe the job and how your background matches the requirements of the position. (Minimum length of 1 page).

[Notes:  If you’re in the military and have no plans of discharging in the near future, focus on a civilian job that you would like to transition into following your military career.  If your circumstances do not allow you to work, consider volunteer activities within your community that you would like to be a part of.] Part 2:  Develop and write a 1-2 page resume.

  • Write a 1-2 page resume, designed to compete for the position you researched and chose in Part 1 of this assignment. You can get creative with it!
  • Your finished product (research and resume) should be a total of 2-3 pages in length.

Include a title sheet.  See rubric below.

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Write a paper taking one of the following sides: Training should be cut in tough times OR Training should be increased during tough times

Costs

Costs are a consideration of every organization and in economically difficult times many managers may want to cut the “training budget” to save costs. I’m sure that you’ve heard that training is always the first to go in tough times.  But is that really the smartest business strategy to employ–or during economically difficult times should the “training budget be increased? Write a paper taking one of the following sides:

  • Training should be cut in tough times

OR

  • Training should be increased during tough times

  The requirements below must be met for your paper to be accepted and graded:

  • Write between 750 – 1,250 words (approximately 3 – 5 pages) using Microsoft Word in APA style, see example below.
  • Use font size 12 and 1” margins.
  • Include cover page and reference page.
  • At least 80% of your paper must be original content/writing.
  • No more than 20% of your content/information may come from references.
  • Use at least three references from outside the course material, one reference must be from EBSCOhost. Text book, lectures, and other materials in the course may be used, but are not counted toward the three reference requirement.
  • Cite all reference material (data, dates, graphs, quotes, paraphrased words, values, etc.) in the paper and list on a reference page in APA style.

References must come from sources such as, scholarly journals found in EBSCOhost, CNN, online newspapers such as, The Wall Street Journal, government websites, etc. Sources such as, Wikis, Yahoo Answers, eHow, blogs, etc. are not acceptable for academic writing.

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