Use examples from the readings and documentaries, explain how the criminal justice system has been used as a tool of social control, policing both race and sexual orientation. Discussion Instructions: Module 5 Initial Post is due on or before Wednesday at 11:59 pm EST Response Posts are due on or before Sunday at 11:59 pm EST Instructions: Utilize this weekâ€™s assigned readings and viewings to answer the discussion question from the Initial Post section below. Your initial post is due at 11:59 pm EST on Wednesday. This post should be submitted as a comprehensive essay. Depending on the succinctness of your writing style, 3â€6 paragraphs should be necessary to fully explore the points raised. Use proper citations and APA format in your writing. Then, by Sunday at 11:59 pm EST, read the posts of your classmates and respond to at least two. Use the guidelines noted in the Response Posts section below to formulate your responses. These can be shorter (1â€2 paragraphs), but also need to be substantive and include references to and citations of the readings. Initial Post: Use examples from the readings and documentaries, explain how the criminal justice system has been used as a tool of social control, policing both race and sexual orientation. Response Posts: Read the posts of other learners and respond to at least two other learners. Your responses are expected to be substantive in nature and reference the assigned readings, as well as other theoretical, empirical, or professional literature to support your views and writings. In your response, do at least two of the following: ï‚· Ask a probing question. ï‚· Offer a suggestion. ï‚· Elaborate on a particular point. ï‚· Provide an alternative perspective. CRIM66761 Module 5 Description of Presentation 1 The Racialization of Crime Immediately after the Civil War ended, Southern states enacted â€œblack codesâ€ that allowed African Americans certain rights, such as legalized marriage, ownership of property, and limited access to the courts, but denied them the rights to testify against whites, to serve on juries or in state militias, vote, or start a job without the approval of the previous employer. Significantly, black codes were intended to secure a steady supply of cheap labor, thus replicating patterns of slave labor Included were vagrancy laws that declared a black to be vagrant if unemployed and without permanent residence; a person so defined could be arrested, fined, and bound out for a term of labor if unable to pay the fine. Apprentice laws provided for the â€œhiring outâ€ of orphans and other young dependents to whites, which often turned out to be their former slave owners. Some states limited the type of property blacks could own, and in others blacks were excluded from certain businesses or from the skilled trades. From 1866-1877, the period of Reconstruction brought with it increased rights for African Americans, under the supervision of federal troops. During this short period, black men even served in public office. With the loss of federal enforcement, these men were removed from office and Southern states enacted a series of laws intended to circumscribe the rights of African Americans. These included contract laws that penalized anyone attempting to leave a job before an advance had been worked off, and because many states didnâ€™t allow African Americans to sue whites, these contracts also maintained patterns of slave labor. The period from 1877 until 1964 is called the Jim Crow period. Jim Crow was not just laws but was a culturally-enforced racial caste system. While southern states were more bold and frequently codified Jim Crow practices into written law and signage (such as labeling facilities for â€œWhitesâ€ and â€œColoreds,â€ northern states like Ohio engaged in unofficial, cultural segregation, with considerable variance among locations. Because of the cultural practices of Jim Crow, African Americans were relegated to the status of second class citizens. It supported beliefs that whites were physically, mentally and morally superior to blacks, and created norms of segregated spaces, such as separate churches, neighborhoods, schools, hospitals, transportation, and even cemeteries. The Civil Rights movement struggled to end segregation and oppressive cultural beliefs. The 1954 Supreme Court ruling Brown v Board of Education ended laws of school segregation, although schools to this day remain segregated because of the slow pace of cultural changes resulting in continued patterns of neighborhood segregation. The passage of the Civil Rights Act in 1964 expanded protections, while in 1967 the Supreme Court, in the Loving v Virginia case declared that bans on interracial marriage unconstitutional. Despite these gains, in the post-civil rights era there as been an extreme increase in criminalization and incarceration which has disproportionately impacted racial minorities, particularly African Americans. CRIM66761 Module 5 Description of Presentation 2 Queer Injustice This presentation examines the history of LGBTQ people as well as the creation and implementation of laws that criminalize sexual orientation and gender identity. Particular attention will be placed on assessing proper terminology for LGBTQ-identified people. In the 20th century, as different groups organized in the struggle for human and civil rights, people who were marginalized because of their sexual orientation and gender identity organized. In this century, while there have been significant gains, LGBTQ people still donâ€™t have equal rights. Before discussing the struggle for civil rights, lets begin with basic definitions. The category LGBTQ includes people who are marginalized on the basis of either sexual orientation or gender identity (and some people fall into oppressed categories for both.) Sexual orientation refers to the romantic, and/or sexual attraction of a person. All people have a sexual orientation, and no people choose their orientationâ€”this is not theory or opinion it is a matter of scientific consensus. Heterosexuals are attracted to people of the opposite sex or gender, homosexuals (gays and lesbians) are attracted to people of the same sex or gender, and bisexuals are attracted to people of both sexes or genders. Sometimes people use the term sexual preference rather than sexual orientation, which is considered as an offensive term because it assumes choice or preference. However some bisexuals will use the term sexual preference to denote which (if any) sex or gender they may prefer. Gender identity is distinctly different from sexual orientation. It refers to a personâ€™s innate identification as male or female. For most people, their gender identity corresponds to the sex they were assigned at birth, but for trans (or transgender) people, their gender identity is different from their assigned sex. The American Psychiatric Association recognizes a condition known as gender dysphoria, which is significant stress caused by the difference between a personâ€™s expressed/experienced gender and the gender others assign to that person. Not all trans people experience gender dysphoria. Some trans people undergo surgical and hormonal gender transition, some undergo hormonal transition, and some express their gender through non-physical means such as clothing and makeup. The term queer is used by some minorities as an umbrella term that encompasses both sexual orientation and gender identity. It is a preferred term in the academic world, but because it is a reclaimed word used to denigrate LGBT people, it is best used by people who exist within these groups. Both homosexuality and trans-identities have existed and been documented in prehistoric drawings, ancient records and writings, and in all cultures and societies. Not surprisingly homosexuality is documented in non-human species as well. In other words, while it is minority behavior it is natural behavior. In European countries and globally as a result of colonization, homosexuality became criminalized, beginning in the Middle Ages. Many scholars connect cultural condemnation of homosexuality to the need for nation-states to rebuild their populations after war, famine and disease. Initially codes criminalizing homosexuality existed side-by-side with codes criminalizing heterosexual oral and anal sex (or sodomy) and masturbation; while other scholars connect the bans to the rising power of the Catholic (and later Protestant) church. In 1791, revolutionary France becomes the first modern nation to decriminalize sodomy (which while technically applies to any acts of oral and anal sex is applied mostly to same-sex activities. By the mid-1800s the term homosexuality is used in scientific circles, and by the late 1800s several European nations decriminalize homosexual acts. However, the United States doesnâ€™t. Illinois becomes the first state to decriminalize sodomyâ€”in 1961. As the sexual revolution and the modern gay rights movements rise in prominence and power in the 1970s and 1980s, more states remove their sodomy bans. But it isnâ€™t until the 2003 Supreme Court Lawrence v Texas that the criminalization of homosexuality ends in the United States. In 2011 the United Nations passed a resolution recognizing LGBT rights. However in 2014 there still are 81 countries (mostly in African and Asia) that criminalize homosexuality, with penalties as serious as execution. While many European nations extended full civil rights to LGBTQ people, the United State has not. In most US states it is legal to not hire and fire an LGBQ person, evict them from rental housing, deny home sales or rentals, remove them from public accommodations (such as parks and public transportation), or refuse them service. Despite the 14th Amendment, the Constitution (via Supreme Court rulings) does not apply to LGBTQ people accept in narrowly defined cases. Therefore many states (including Ohio) ban lesbian and gay couples from marriage. LGBTQ people are disproportionately victimized in violent crimes, including rape and murder. Hate crime statutes do not apply to LGBTQ victims in all states. Trans people are the most likely to be victimized. While some LGBTQ people are employed in the criminal justice system and related professional (including academic departments), other LGBTQ people fear involvement with the criminal justice system, some because they have experienced discrimination from law enforcement and corrections personnel. Because of legal and cultural workplace and educational discrimination against LGBTQ people, they are more likely as a group to live in poverty, and thus suffer from increased victimization as a consequence of socio-economic factors. Few criminal justice and victim-based services have programs and policies to encourage reporting, encourage LGBTQ people to apply for jobs and/or otherwise serve this minority group.